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b) The Law, or the conscience condemns man
(Romans 2:12-16)
12For as many as have sinned without law will also perish without law, and as many as have sinned in the law will be judged by the law13(for not the hearers of the law are just in the sight of God, but the doers of the law will be justified;14for when Gentiles, who do not have the law, by nature do the things in the law, these, although not having the law, are a law to themselves,15who show the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience also bearing witness, and between themselves their thoughts accusing or else excusing them)16in the day when God will judge the secrets of men by Jesus Christ, according to my gospel.

The church in Rome was composed of two groups: Christians of Jewish origin, and believers from the Greek and Roman world. The first had knowledge of the promises and the Law, and kept their traditions according to the Old Testament; while the Christians of the Gentiles did not know any divine order for their life, but walked in the power of the Spirit of Christ.
Paul confirmed to the Christians of Jewish origin that God would condemn them according to the old Law, which is an image of his holiness. Hearing the word of God does not save, and spiritual thoughts and long prayers are not sufficient, for God requires the obedience of heart and of life. He wants his word to be embodied in us, and our life to be completely changed by his word. The Jew will be condemned for every transgression he commits against the Law, for all transgressions are considered as enmity to God.
When Paul wrote these truths, he heard, in his spirit, the argument of the Christians of Jewish origin, who said: “We have no law, and we do not know the Ten Commandments; then how will God deal with us in the Day of Judgment? We are free from the judgment”.
He then frankly answered them that God’s righteousness is in all cases unchangeable, even if it condemned those who ignored the Law, who had neither heard the Commandments and promises, nor known God’s love and holiness; for the Creator put in every man a sensitive, cautious, controlling, warning, censuring, and reproaching conscience. This Warner may sometimes keep silent as if strangled in abeyance. But it certainly shows up newly to show you your faults. And a struggle may break out inside you. This remnant of the image of God in you cannot be silenced at all times. Your conscience condemns you. And you cannot find rest except in the grace of God. This is why many people look sad and nervous, because they live in enmity with their consciences, and do not confess their guilt, though their conscience watches their works and reproaches them. Do you thank God for your conscience, the moral law created in you? Train your conscience in the Gospel, and dye it in the thoughts of God’s love that it may warn you with more exactness and guide you according to the directions of God, and you may become qualified and prepared for every good work. Then you will not fall into the last judgment, because you lived in harmony with the voice of God in your heart.
But if you do not penetrate deeply into the word of Christ, and do not free yourself from the complaints of your conscience, but continue in your obstinacy, and justify yourself by yourself, then your conscience will rise against you in the last day. It will justify God, and condemn you. You have no other solution to your nervousness but to resort to the Gospel, which shows you that your Judge is Himself, your Savior. So, come to Christ immediately, and your will find rest for your soul.
Did you know that the last judgment of God will be put into the hands of Jesus Christ? Did you know that the full name of this Judge is not only “Christ”, but also “Jesus”? The difference between these names is that “Jesus” is his personal name, while “Christ” is the description of his office. Jesus is the Anointed One, who is filled with the gifts and characteristics of God, who has supreme and full authority, and who is empowered with the judgment and salvation.
Thus, the apostle could say that God will condemn the world with all its mysteries according to the Gospel which Paul produced about Jesus. It is necessary for us to be acquainted with what is revealed in the gospel of Paul, as included in his epistle to the Romans, concerning the Day of Judgment.

O holy God, You know me more than I know myself. All my works are uncovered before you. I confess my sin, and ask you to reveal to me all my hidden faults that I may bring them to the light of your Son, before the coming of the fearful day. Forgive me if I did not obey the voice of my conscience at once, or if I willfully neglected your voice. Give me determination and power to execute the orders of your love.
How will God deal with the Gentiles in the Day of Judgment?