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24When they had come to Capernaum, those who received the temple tax came to Peter and said, “Does your Teacher not pay the temple tax?”25He said, “Yes.” And when he had come into the house, Jesus anticipated him, saying, “What do you think, Simon? From whom do the kings of the earth take customs or taxes, from their sons or from strangers?”26Peter said to Him, “From strangers.” Jesus said to him, “Then the sons are free.27Nevertheless, lest we offend them, go to the sea, cast in a hook, and take the fish that comes up first. And when you have opened its mouth, you will find a piece of money; take that and give it to them for Me and you.” (Exodus30:13,2Kings12:5-6)

The tax demanded was not any civil payment to the Roman powers but for religious duties. The half shekel payment was required from every person for the service of the temple. This was for defraying expenses associated with worship there. It was called, “a ransom for the soul” (Exodus 30:12). At that time, it was not as strictly demanded as it had been at other times, especially in Galilee.
Christ did not declare Himself as the Son of Man only but also as the Son of God during the case of the temple tax. He was not forced to pay a tax for the house of His heavenly Father, because all that God had, He had. But his love for His enemies and His mercy for their weakness prompted Him to pay the tax willingly. He bound Himself with Peter and the other disciples, and He called them, “God’s free sons,” as mentioned several times in the Gospel of Matthew. Do you cling, dear brother, to this title and this promise and stand with God’s sons, not because of your goodness, but because you believed in Jesus’ word? His powerful word will sanctify you to the uttermost, that you will become what God calls you to become.
Christian prudence and humility teach us, in many cases, to give up our right rather than give offence by insisting upon it. We must never decline our duty for fear of giving offence, but we must sometimes deny ourselves in that which is our secular interest, rather than give offence.

O Father, we worship You with love and joy, because Your only Son made us, by His death, sons of Yours. We were in our nature enemies to You and were far from You, but Jesus’ blood brought us to You. We glorify You for Your grace, and rejoice for Your fatherhood to us. Help us to serve in Your love as Your Son served the world that Your divinity may be realized in our humanity.
How did Jesus declare that He was the Son of Man and the Son of God?