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b) Man is not justified by circumcision
(Romans 4:9-12)
9Does this blessedness then come upon the circumcised only, or upon the uncircumcised also? For we say that faith was accounted to Abraham for righteousness.10How then was it accounted? While he was circumcised, or uncircumcised? Not while circumcised, but while uncircumcised. 11And he received the sign of circumcision, a seal of the righteousness of the faith which he had while still uncircumcised, that he might be the father of all those who believe, though they are uncircumcised, that righteousness might be imputed to them also,12and the father of circumcision to those who not only are of the circumcision, but who also walk in the steps of the faith which our father Abraham had while still uncircumcised.

Paul attacked the beliefs of the Jews, and broke one of their sacred principles, which is circumcision. The people of the wilderness considered this sign as one of the greatest symbols of the old covenant. He who was circumcised was regarded as God’s own, and he who was uncircumcised was regarded as blasphemer. Therefore, the Jews asked every fresh believer to be circumcised as a token of his original purification, which would qualify him to enter into the covenant with God.
Paul proved to the strict Jews through the conduct of Abraham that man is justified not by circumcision, but by faith alone; since Abraham, himself, had heard the call of his Lord, and believed it before he was circumcised. Thus, his faith was the cause and foundation of his righteousness. Circumcision, to him, was a sealing, and not a right to return to God; it was not circumcision that helped him because he had already entered into a covenant with God by faith.
Paul dared to say that Abraham had first become a father to all the believers of Gentile origin before he became a father to the circumcised, because he was justified while he was still an uncircumcised Gentile. With this argument, the Apostle of the Gentiles proved that the believing Gentiles are nearer to God than the circumcised who do not believe in Christ. God is glorified with sincere faith and change of mind, and not with physical symbols and customary rites.
The Jews flamed up with rage when Paul clarified to them their self-deceit and disproved their false assurance. However, he testified to the fanatic Jews that they could also gain Abraham as a father if they believed in the gospel of grace. The way leading to God is neither origin, nor circumcision, but trusting the Crucified. For us this means that not every baptized Christian is righteous because of his baptism, unless he actually believes, for man is justified before God, not by rites and symbols, but by sincere faith alone.

O Holy Father, we are not worthy to come to you, because of our corruption and faults. But your beloved Son has revealed his love for us, and justified us on the cross, and we believe in his word, long for his person, build ourselves on his salvation, and follow his example, because you justified and sanctified us freely with all those who love you throughout this world.
Why is man justified, not by circumcision, but by faith alone?